Looking out to the ocean from a rocky beach with a large rock in the foreground. The sky is a grey, twilight colour with an orange setting sun on the horizon and there are tall evergreens in the distance to the right.Climate change will affect ecosystems throughout the region. The vulnerability of marine species to the cumulative effects of climate change depends on intrinsic adaptive capacities and sensitivities (based on biological or ecological traits), and extrinsic threats (impacts), such as increasing sea surface temperature or ocean acidification [86]. The cumulative effects of climate change on the …

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